Friday, November 15, 2019

Wireless Communication: Applications and Limitations

Wireless Communication: Applications and Limitations Wireless Communications INTRODUCTION First of all, the meaning of wireless must be clearly identified: Wireless communications are the technology that uses any type of waves to substitute the use of cables and wires in order to create links (or a certain kind of connectivity) between different devices; such waves can be radio waves, infrared waves, or microwaves. Even though many people think that wireless communication is a new form of technology, the truth is that many devices that already existed for many decades use wireless technology, in one way or another, to accomplish the tasks or to deliver the services that they were designed for. Such devices include radio and television transmission-reception devices, military communication devices and many more. Mostly, such technology was being utilised only by governments and large organisations. The difference that appeared in the last few years is the one that involves computer systems and other related pieces of equipment and that which involves telephony and communications, which made it possible for individuals and small and medium organisations to have access to such technology and to be able to use it for specific and personalised uses. WIRELESS COMMUNICATIONS Today, wireless communications are growing steadily in almost all sectors, which include home and individual uses, organisational and governmental uses, and scientific and research institutional uses as well. This is evident in every aspect of connectivity that is present and that is available for each person of us; mobile phones (especially those classified as smart-phones) are the most wide-spread devices that utilise wireless communications for almost all the requirements that wireless technology provides; this includes wireless voice connections, data and messaging connections, and multimedia (audio and video) exchange links. For those devices to be able to accomplish that, they cover most of the types of frequencies that are available through the use of technologies such as infrared, Bluetooth, WiFi, GSM and much more. Wireless Local Area Networks (WLANs) are the most significant technological advancement since the beginning of the computer (and the Internet) age. Such technology provides the possibility of active connectivity to companies, universities, schools, research institutions, and even entities of a far smaller nature. A growing number of homes is now applying WLANs because it can provide the users with the same kind of service without the need for cables. Prasad and Ruggieri (2003) give more details about WLANs by stating that â€Å"WLAN systems are a technology that can provide very high data rate applications and individual links (e.g., in company campus areas, conference centers, airports) and represents an attractive way of setting up computers networks in environments where cable installation is expensive or not feasible. They represent the coming together of two of the fastest-growing segments of the computer industry: LANs and mobile computing, thus recalling the attention of equipment manufactures. This shows their high potential and justifies the big attention paid to WLAN by equipment manufacturers. Whereas in the early beginning of WLANs several proprietary products existed, nowadays they are mostly conform to the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineering (IEEE) 802.11b (also known as Wi-Fi) standard. It operates in the unlicenced 2.4-GHz band at 11 Mbps and it is currently extended to reach 20 Mbps.† When talking about wireless computer connectivity, it must be stated that there are two methods in which it operates today. The first is the â€Å"Ad Hoc mode, or Independent Basic Service Set (IBSS). This is a peer-to-peer wireless network. This means that it does not have an access point controlling the conversation.† This method is usually used for small networks which consist of five or less users. Its point of access which â€Å"manages the conversions is gone and the clients send beacons to each other These beacons contain a timer synchronization function (TSF) to ensure that the timing is correct. This function is usually handled in the access point.† The second method is â€Å"the Infrastructure mode, which is called Extended Basic Service Set (EBSS). This is the main type of wireless network. In an EBSS, an access point controls all traffic. Setting up a wireless network in this category requires a piece of networking equipment referred to as an access point. This access point is where the Ethernet data is converted into a wireless signal that is then transferred out through the access point’s antenna. To hear and understand this signal, a wireless network interface card is needed. This card has a small antenna inside it and can hear the wireless signal and transfer it to the computer† (Earle, 2006). As is the case for what concerns wired computer networks, wireless networks are either Wide Area Networks (WAN) or Local Area Networks (LAN). As for the wireless LANs, Vacca (2003) explains that â€Å"wireless data local-area networks (WiFi LANs) have surged in popularity. WiFi LANs provide network access only for approximately 300 ft around each access point, but provide for bandwidth up to 11 Mbps for the IEEE 802.11b protocol, and up to 100 Mbps for the emerging 802.11a protocol. Best of all, the technology is available now and affordable† and the author explains that their reduced cost of deployment, compared to that of the wired LANs, made them more attractive in what concerns the enlargement of corporate networks to other locations: â€Å"The wireless data LAN is a ‘nice and clean’ extension to an office’s wired LAN. Wireless data LANs are attractive to offices that want to enable workers to take laptops into a conference room. Wireless data has a place now† According to the author, â€Å"WiFi is especially popular in the manufacturing, distribution, and retail industries† Liska (2003) explains that the main purpose of using wireless WAN technology is to enable the connection to the Internet and to allow the connection between different offices (of a certain company, for example) that are located in different geographical locations. The author states that â€Å"Wireless WANs have emerged as a low-cost alternative to a traditional method of Internet access. Wireless WAN connection can offer the same amount of bandwidth as a T1, at a fraction of the cost. Wireless connections are also being deployed in areas where cable and DSL access is not available.† Another form of wireless networks is the Wireless Personal Area Network (WPAN). In this type, the infrastructure network is not required as there is no need for a central link (or main connection of reference) as the connection is created between specific small devices and users within a given location. The main basic idea behind personal area network is the possibility to inter-connect two or more user-devices within a space of small coverage (that is not more than 10m) where ad hoc communication takes place which is also called personal operating space (POS). â€Å"The network is aimed at interconnecting portable and mobile computing devices such as laptops, personal digital assistants (PDAs), peripherals, cellular phones, digital cameras, headsets, and other electronics devices† (Prasad and Ruggieri, 2003). To give more details about this kind of wireless network, Vacca (2003) states that â€Å"the term ad hoc connectivity refers to both the ability for a device to assume either master or slave functionality and the ease in which devices may join or leave an existing network. The Bluetooth radio system has emerged as the first technology addressing WDPAN applications with its salient features of low power consumption, small package size, and low cost. Wireless data rates for Bluetooth devices are limited to 1 Mbps, although actual throughput is about half this data rate. A Bluetooth communication link also supports up to three voice channels with very limited or no additional bandwidth for bursty wireless data traffic.† For what concerns the standards of wireless networking, we find that for many years the systems were dependant on manufacturers, and this created problems regarding the compatibility of different systems with one another; that is why many standards are now present for use with the wireless systems. â€Å"This made the industry push the IEEE to make some wireless standards and help facilitate the growth of wireless with common standards that allowed various manufacturer cards to work with various manufacturer wireless networks† The standards used today include the 802.11 standard which â€Å"was the first WLAN standard accepted by multiple vendors as a true industry standard,† Other standards are 802.11a, 802.11b, 802.11c, and the 802.11g which was approved by the IEEE in 2003. There are other standards such as â€Å"The 802.11i standard [which is] a security standard that can apply to other 802.11 standards† and there is the 802.11j which is â€Å"for use in Jap an only† (Earle, 2006). According to Pallato (2004), a unified 802.11n Wi-Fi will be widely used soon. The 802.11n â€Å"is based on a new radio technology called MIMO (multiple input/multiple output) that allows the transmission of up to 100M bps over a much wider range than the earlier versions.† This will certainly be a step in the right direction in attempting to unify all the wireless standards into one technology that can be accessible to everyone anywhere. But this unification is facing problems and delays: Reardon (2006) explains that â€Å"the new standard that will allow notebook users to connect to wireless access points at much faster speeds than is currently available [will be delayed].. The IEEE approved a draft version of the standard called 802.11n, after much controversy and infighting among chipmakers. A second draft was due for the standard by late fall of this year [2006], but now a new draft won’t likely be ready until January 2007. This could push back the final ratifica tion of the standard until 2008 The delay in adopting a standard has been caused by the nearly 12,000 changes to the draft that have been submitted to the standards group†. The future of the wireless communications technologies is promising; this is because more mobility and speed are the most required factors in what concerns inter-connectivity, they are certainly more desired than the wired options, especially that the cost and the security options are being improved constantly. â€Å"Though still an imperfect technology, wireless data LANs are, nonetheless, booming and remain at least one market segment that’s expected to achieve its anticipated growth rate. IDC forecasts worldwide wireless data LAN semiconductor revenue alone to grow at a 30 percent compound annual growth rate during the next 4 years. And, 68 percent of networking solution providers already deploy wireless data LANs and WANs† (Vacca, 2003). As can be seen by now, wireless technologies are becoming more requested and more used by all sectors of users, from large organisations to schools to home and office users. The overwhelming success of the mobile phone devices (especially the smart-phones with the possibility to have Wi-Fi, Bluetooth, and Infrared links) will force the industry to grow faster and to provide the instruments and the hardware needed for its propagation for lower prices. One of the emerging realities of today is what is called ‘Wi-Fi covered towns’: The more hotspots (or Wi-Fi access points) there will be available in homes, offices, coffee shops, restaurants, and bookstores, the more the ‘covered city’ concept can be put to practice. And with the arrival of the $100-smarphone by the year 2008, more and more people will find themselves directly inside the wireless age. Some are already talking about providing the Wi-Fi service through traditional radio frequencies, and with that , what we were accustomed to in what concerns TV reception can be used for wireless connections to the internet, and through that to the entire world. According to Long (2006), â€Å"One of the latest WLAN technologies [and one of those that are expected to flourish within the next 5 years], MIMO, or multiple-input multiple-output, splits the connection workload [within a LAN] into multiple data streams for increased range and throughput. Another technology, OFDM, or orthogonal frequency division multiplexing, is a technique for transmitting large amounts of digital data over radio waves.† The future of communications is already known: Every individual will be able to get connected to any group of users he/she chooses, will be connected to his work network on the move and at his home and even when he/she is on vacation with no PDA or laptop. This is why the future seems to be revolving around the WPANs. The Wireless network installation and application will be extremely cheap that continuing with wired networks will be totally unacceptable by all means. APPLICATIONS Even if the beginning of the wireless applications was focused on applications related to vertical markets such as retail, warehousing, and manufacturing, â€Å"current growth is being driven by other market segments. These include enterprise, small office/home office, telecommunications/Internet service provider (ISP) and the public access throughput compared to cellular mobiles networks are the lead drivers for wireless LAN deployment. Voice over IP (VoIP) is also expected to drive this technology in the future† (Smyth, 2004). Vacca (2003) explains that an entire range of applications and services are either dependent on wireless technology or are to be deployed depending on it. The author mentions the service of Triangulation which can be (and is being) used to locate the position of a mobile device through measuring the distance from two or more known points. Another application is Assisted GPS for determining the exact geographic position of the device in use. One important service that is also mentioned is the High-Resolution Maps service. Another important application of wireless networks is the one given to rural areas and locations where no cable or wire related new technologies can reach, for this the wireless technology can be deployed through satellite. â€Å"A new breed of satellite technologies and services allows providers to bring high-speed, always-on, two-way access to the planet’s farthest reaches. For example, McLean, Virginia–based StarBand Communications (a joint venture of Israeli satellite powerhouse Gilat Satellite Networks, EchoStar Communications, and Microsoft) is the first company to launch two-way consumer service in the United States.† The potentials for wireless applications are endless in virtually all sectors. Such applications can be used for workers and sales employees, for warehouse personnel who order parts, for accountants who generate invoices, and for transportations companies such as DHL and UPS. â€Å"New applications are appearing at an ever-increasing rate. Mobile workers, such as salespeople, field service technicians, and delivery people, are an obvious target for new wireless applications. Wireless technology applications can arm these workers with tools and data access capabilities that were previously limited to desk-bound employees† (Hayes, 2003). With wireless communications, data transfer (especially of larger files, such as those related to multimedia audio and video and huge reports and presentations) will become easier whenever the mobile devices become improved in order to utilise higher bandwidths and faster access possibilities. TV and video streaming to wireless devices has already started and the improvements will keep on appearing. There are no limits to the applications of wireless technology. We have already reached the technological know-how that enables us to realise almost all the desired wireless applications, and the cost of their deployment and use will drop until it becomes more common than anything else. Any innovation in the wireless technology camp will be profitable to the manufacturers and desired by the users, mobility is something that is becoming more essential for any organisation or individual that aims at success. â€Å"Wireless Applications are in their Internet infancy and awaiting broader bandwidth. As this becomes available the scope for applications on a cost-per-view basis will increase. Of particular interest for the future are the attempts to commercialize WWW by offering software, which relies on the WWWs free infrastructure to be viable, on pay-per-use basis† (Bidgoli, 2004). PROBLEMS As mentioned earlier, one of the most important problems facing the wireless technology today is the different standards used by different manufacturers, but this is a problem that is supposed to be resolved shortly. The real important issue is security. Earle (2006) mentions some of the security related issues such as Analysis (â€Å"the viewing, recording, or eavesdropping of a signal that is not intended for the party who is performing the analysis†), Spoofing (â€Å"impersonating an authorized client, device, or user to gain access to a resource that is protected by some form of authentication or authorization†), Wireless Denial-of-Service (â€Å"achieved with small signal jammers†), and Malicious Code (which can be used to â€Å"infect and corrupt network devices†). These risks are present in both wireless computer networks and in mobile devices such as mobile phones and PDAs. The major solutions for this are encryption and authentication solutions in various kinds and modalities. But still, the security issue is the most important reason for delay concerning the movement of all the applications and services toward the wireless realm. Another problem is the bandwidth; most mobile devices need to be developed further in order to turn the experience of using them into one that is similar to desktop computers and wired LAN connected devices. Works Cited Prasad, R. and Ruggieri, M. (2003) Technology Trends in Wireless Communications. Boston, MA: Artech House Publishers. Earle, A. E. (2006) Wireless Security Handbook. Boca Raton, FL: Auerbach Publications. Liska, A. (2003) The Practice of Network Security: deployment strategies for production environments. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson Education, Inc. Vacca, J. R. (2003) Wireless Data Demystified. New York, NY: McGraw-HIll Companies, Inc. Pallato, J. (2004) Unified 802.11n Wi-Fi Standard to Emerge in Mid-2006.[Accessed 22nd January 2007]. Available from World Wide Web:,1895,1735082,00.asp> Reardon, M. (2006). New Wi-Fi standard delayed again. ZDNet Tech News. [Accessed 21st January 2007]. Available from World Wide Web:> Long, M. (2006) The Future of Wireless Networks. [Accessed 20th January 2007]. Available from World Wide Web:> Smyth, P. (2004) Mobile and Wireless Communications:: Key Technologies and Future Applications. London, UK: The Institution of Electrical Engineers. Hayes, I. S. (2003) Just Enough Wireless Computing. Upper Saddler River, NJ: Pearson Education, Inc. Bidgoli, H. (2004) The Internet Encyclopedia. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley Sons, Inc. Is it better to be an Assigned or Self-Initiated Expatriate in Japan? Is it better to be an Assigned or Self-Initiated Expatriate in Japan? Research Question: Is it better to be an Assigned or Self-Initiated Expatriate in Japan? Technology is the backbone of this ever-evolving generation. Japan is not only one of the most technologically advanced countries in the world, but, is also an internationally recognized hotspot for people who are looking to expatriate, and to make a promising future in this culturally un-paralleled location. This report will examine the benefits and disadvantages of being either a Company Assigned Expatriate (AE/CAE/OE) or a Self-Initiated Expatriate (SIE) in Japan. Aspects such as; motivation, job satisfaction, cross-cultural adjustment, family factors, compensation, and success factors will be taken into consideration, in this report. To begin the report, it is important to understand what some of the primary differences between assigned expatriates and self-initiated expatriates actually are. First of all, the â€Å"assigned expatriate† refers to a person who is sent abroad to another country, by the company they are working for, or are sponsored by. While, the â€Å"self-initiated expatriate† refers to a person who goes to another country of their choosing, in pursuit of a better life, often trying to find work on their own. A study done by Torsten Biemann and Maike Andresen, found that SIEs â€Å"start their international careers at a younger age, have a higher organizational mobility, and expect higher benefits from international experiences for their future careers† (2010). This implies that SIEs may often be recent graduates, or other young people who do not see much of a career opportunity in their home country, and seek bigger and better things abroad. These expatriates are also more l ikely to change or rethink their career paths, as compared to AEs, since they have more freedom to do what they would like to, as they were not brought into the country from an employer. Also, from leaving their home country, they would have a notion of achieving more, and have a broader list of goals than AEs, as again, nothing is set-up for them to feel like they are limited. They do not feel like career growth only stems from the company that they are linked to, unlike AEs. However, assigned expatriates seem to be more driven by the career factors in accordance to the company that sent them there, and may have more experience than SIEs – which seems to be more attractive to employers. Self-initiated expatriation, in most cases, is not an easy task. It requires much motivation, determination, and the ability to take risks. A SIE has to commit to the idea of leaving everything behind and going off to a foreign country – with some level of uncertainty pertaining to their future. The research done by Jan Selmer and Jakob Lauring discovers that SIEs may be motivated to expatriate because they are either; escaping from unfavourable conditions in their home country – â€Å"the refugee†, seeking financial stability – â€Å"the mercenary†, travelling to a favourable destination – â€Å"the explorer†, or finally, in pursuit of career success – â€Å"the architect† (2012). Furthermore, another study by the two, Jan Selmer and Jakob Lauring, finds that; younger SIEs â€Å"were more motivated by adventure, career and money when choosing to expatriate† (2010). What this means, is that the SIEs that belong to â€Å"the refugee† role, are most often older, may have already started a family, and most likely already have adequate work experience, prior to expatriating. However, self-initiated expatriates still consist of more young people and recent graduates on average, as compared to assigned expatriates. Japan is known for having a relatively low average fertility rate, as compared to the rest of the world (Boling, 2008). This may negatively impact young SIEs that are trying to start a family in Japan. More often, AEs, on the other hand, will go abroad with families they have already started in their home countries. AEs are also less likely to start a family in Japan, as they are aware of the fact that they are only there for a finite amount of time. Therefore, it may not be as big as a problem to AEs, on an average. Assigned expatriates are motivated to go abroad for career driven objectives, and will often not look as the new country (Japan) as â€Å"home†, but rather, a stepping-stone in the projection of their careers. SIEs would more often, treat Japan as a new cultural experience, and will end up staying longer than AEs, or even ind efinitely – unless they do not find success or happiness in Japan. For AEs; â€Å"career-related factors appeared significantly more important to their decision to move abroad, indicating that their desire for an international experience is explicitly coupled with career development and progression† (Doherty, Dickmann, Mills, 2011). This implies that, AEs might not have the same level of appreciation for Japan, as a SEI would, and it may contribute to a significantly less level of enjoyment and fulfillment while abroad. It is also important to understand which roles assigned expatriates and self-initiated expatriates often tend to fill in organizations, upon expatriating. These roles can end up defining or being the highlight of these expatriates’ careers. According to Phyllis Tharenou, the five main purposes of assigned expatriates is to: First, to set up a new operation and establish foreign operations in their early stages; second, to fill a skills gap; third, to develop managers international skills; fourth, to transfer company culture and knowledge to a foreign operation and gain feedback from it; and fifth, to supply the top manager and control the operation and coordinate with headquarters. (2013) This entails that assigned expatriates are given great responsibility and a high position within the organization when expatriated, which also implies that self-initiated expatriates would have to spent more time in the company to work up to that same level, since; â€Å"SIEs are most likely to be: an unsuitable alternative to CAEs for roles requiring firm-specific knowledge† (Tharenou, 2013). This might be the case, even if the AEs and SIEs may have the same or comparable level of education; â€Å"AEs possessed no significant difference in levels of education than SIEs, but were more likely to be in greater positions of authority† (Andresen, Biemann, Pattie, 2015). Unsurprisingly, the greater hierarchical position, leads to greater compensation for AEs on average (Sims Schraeder, 2005). Thus, SIEs are also more likely to be underemployed, since, managers would not be confident enough to trust in the SIEs abilities. This would inevitably cause SIEs to be dissatisfied with their jobs and be alienated from the others in the workplace (Lee, 2005). However, with regards to Japan, it seems as if SIEs obtain more skills that compliment them to have an easier experience of cross-cultural adjustment. Japanese language proficiency seems to be the most important trait in expatriates finding success in Japan. Self-initiated expatriates are much more competent with this skill than assigned expatriates. There may still be language training sessions for AEs, but it is seen as a drag to the management in Japan (Peltokorpi, 2008). This entails that AEs, most likely spend time before expatriating to learn about Japanese culture and the language, and are also likely to spend more time living in Japan than AEs. Thus, they find an easier experience of adjustment to the new culture, since they are prepared for it, in hopes of quickly establishing a successful career abroad. AEs on the other hand, have the sense of security that they will be working immediately upon expatriating. So, they would most likely not go through a lot of preparation for the new culture. However, SIEs would still have to work up to the level of AEs – as mentioned earlier, and would likely contribute to a decreas ed rate of job satisfaction. A study conducted by Fabian Jintae Froese and Vesa Peltokorpi, about expatriates in Japan reaffirms this; â€Å"SIEs suffer from lower job satisfaction because they tend to work more often under HCN (host-country nationals) supervisors regardless of their hierarchical level or the nationality of their employing organizations† (2013). The same studies also found that assigned expatriates and self-initiated expatriates react to cross-cultural adjustment very differently. As established before; AEs see expatriation as an important step in their careers, while, most SIEs take it as an opportunity to appreciate culture and absorb knowledge. SIEs’ increased proficiency in the Japanese language allows them to communicate more with locals, mesh within Japanese culture, and even talk to other expatriates in Japan. While, AEs will remain mostly isolated in their personal lives; â€Å"During their fixed expatriation period in Japan, OEs might be more inclined to interact with other expatriates† (Peltokorpi, 2008). As SIEs interact more with locals; â€Å"they receive information about behavioural norms and the rationale for why people behave in a certain way. The ability to act in an appropriate way and predict the behaviour of others tends to reduce uncertainty and increase psychological comfort† (Pelt okorpi, 2008). This basically means that SIEs will be happier outside of the workspace, as they can enjoy Japanese culture and appreciation for their journey. While, AEs, will be happier in the workspace, as they will have higher positions and be perceived as more successful that SIEs, in the workforce. Another report – by Nancy Napier and Sully Taylor – finds that, expatriating to Japan is a much different experience for women. Due to some of the social patriarchal structures still in place, female self-initiated expatriates will have a harder time to reach the level of, and make as much money as male SIEs – let alone AEs – in an organization. However, female AEs on average, do not face this discrimination, since, they are given and briefed of their position, in their native country, before expatriating. In some cases, women AEs are also offered optional additional cross-cultural training, in order to familiarize themselves with the social contracts and customs of Japan, as they can vary widely from genders and from the constructs and customs of their home country. One problem for female AEs, or AEs in general, can be of repatriation. This report highlights that; â€Å"In one survey of American expatriates, 40 percent said that, on their return to the U nited States, there was no specific job for them†, furthermore; â€Å"another study found that 26 percent of the American expatriates surveyed were actively looking for a different job within one year of returning to the United States† (1996). It is also important to note that this report was a little dated, as it was compiled in 1996; many things could change in a timeframe of almost two decades. To conclude, and to answer the initial research question, both assigned expatriates and self-initiated expatriates have their own unique benefits and setbacks. Preferring to be either an AE or a SIE, depends on what each individual expatriate values in their life. In review, AEs will most likely come to Japan in the pursuit of an increased repertoire and are more driven by career factors. AEs will most likely also start off in a high position (higher than that of a SIE), and in turn, will earn more money, while in Japan. SIEs, on the other hand, can come to Japan for varied reasons, but in order to succeed, they all have to have some skills to help them prepare for this unique culture. Many SIEs have great Japanese-language proficiencies and have a tendency to appreciate the culture and the locals more, as, they will most likely want to stay longer in Japan, than AEs. However, they will usually start off in lower positions, compared to AEs, even though they may have the same level of education. This may lead to them being underemployed and contribute to an overall job dissatisfaction. Women looking expatriate on their own to Japan, also need to consider that they will be facing additional challenges due to the patriarchal structure over there, and may not be happy about their compensation. Thus, may consider expatriating to Japan, through company sponsorship from their native countries. With all of the pros and cons weighted and in consideration, it seems as if being an assigned expatriate may better suit most people’s characteristics. Not many people would like to shift to Japan for life (or most of their lives), thus, assigned expatriation provides a great opportunity to experience Japanese life and culture, while making more money than SIEs, on average. AEs are also given the chance to expatriate elsewhere, and see more of the world after their experience with Japan. SIEs may choose to repatriate to their native countries, but most would choose not to be a SIE again, as they may find it to be too much of a commitment. References: Biemann, T., Andresen, M. (2010). Self-initiated foreign expatriates versus assigned expatriates.Journal of Managerial Psychology,25(4), 430-448. doi:10.1108/02683941011035313 Selmer, J., Lauring, J. (2012). Reasons to expatriate and work outcomes of self-initiated expatriates.Personnel Review,41(5), 665-684. doi:10.1108/00483481211249166 Selmer, J., Lauring, J. (2010), Self-initiated academic expatriates: Inherent demographics and reasons to expatriate. European Management Review, 7:169–179. doi:10.1057/emr.2010.15 Boling, P. A. (2008). Demography, culture, and policy: Understanding Japans low fertility.Population and Development Review,34(2), 307-326. doi:10.1111/j.1728-4457.2008.00221.x Doherty, N., Dickmann, M., Mills, T. (2011). Exploring the motives of company-backed and self-initiated expatriates. International Journal Of Human Resource Management,22(3), 595-611. doi:10.1080/09585192.2011.543637 Doherty, N., Richardson, J., Thorn, K. (2013). Self-initiated expatriation and self-initiated expatriates.Career Development International,18(1), 97-112. doi:10.1108/13620431311305971 Tharenou, P. (2013). Self-initiated expatriates: An alternative to company-assigned expatriates?Journal of Global Mobility,1(3), 336-356. doi: Andresen, M., Biemann, T., Pattie, M. W. (2015). What makes them move abroad? reviewing and exploring differences between self-initiated and assigned expatriation.The International Journal of Human Resource Management,26(7), 932-947. doi:10.1080/09585192.2012.669780 Sims, R. H., Schraeder, M. (2005). Expatriate compensation.Career Development International,10(2), 98-108. doi:10.1108/13620430510588301 Lee, C. H. (2005). A study of underemployment among self-initiated expatriates.Journal of World Business,40(2), 172-187. doi:10.1016/j.jwb.2005.02.005 Peltokorpi, V. (2007). Intercultural communication patterns and tactics: Nordic expatriates in Japan.International Business Review,16(1), 68-82. doi:10.1016/j.ibusrev.2006.12.001 Peltokorpi, V. (2008). Cross-cultural adjustment of expatriates in Japan.International Journal Of Human Resource Management,19(9), 1588-1606. doi:10.1080/09585190802294903 Froese, F. J., Peltokorpi, V. (2013). Organizational expatriates and self-initiated expatriates: differences in cross-cultural adjustment and job satisfaction.International Journal Of Human Resource Management,24(10), 1953-1967. doi:10.1080/09585192.2012.725078 Taylor, S., Napier, N. (1996). Working in Japan: Lessons from women expatriates.Sloan Management Review,37(3), 76. Retrieved from 1

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